February 27, 2017
409 Choline – an essential nutrient [27 Feb 2017]
Choline is an essential vitamin-like nutrient. Our bodies can synthesize small amounts of choline but we must get most from our diet. It was discovered in 1862 but was only recognized as an essential nutrient in 1998. I have previously written about lecithin [#94 Dec 2010], phosphatidylcholine [#247 Dec 2013], and phosphatidylserine [#248 Dec 2013].
Choline serves many functions in the body:
• Essential for synthesis of cell membranes and DNA
• Plays role in cell communication
• Transports triglycerides out of the liver
• Along with folate is essential for fetal development of the brain and nervous system
• Essential for children’s growth and development
• Precursor to neurotransmitter acetylcholine, necessary for nerve and muscle function
• Assists in reduction of homocysteine which is associated with heart disease
• Component of lecithin, phosphatidylcholine, and betaine
A deficiency of choline can lead to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; muscle damage and pain; neural tube birth defects; brain dysfunctions like learning disabilities, memory loss, and inability to focus or concentrate; lack of energy or fatigue; and increased homocysteine levels (and therefore increased risk of heart disease, cancer, and bone fractures).
The American Institute of Medicine set “adequate daily intake values” for choline at: 425 mg for women, 550 for men, 450-550 for pregnancy, 550 for breastfeeding, and 230 for children. Genetic factors may cause some people to require more. Up to 3,500 mg daily is considered safe.
Food sources include beef liver (470mg per 5oz serving), egg yolks (150mg in 1 large egg), fish, shellfish, beef (especially grass-fed), turkey, chicken breast, dairy products, goat milk, beans and peas (including peanuts), Brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and spinach. Soy and sunflower lecithin are also good sources. Choline is available as a supplement, often with inositol, another vitamin-like nutrient. Choline is often included in B complex and multivitamin formulas.
A 2015 study in the USA found 90% of participants had inadequate intakes of choline. Are you getting enough?
For more information on this or other natural health topics, stop in and talk to Stan; for medical advice consult your licensed health practitioner. Find this article on my website for links to sources and further reading.